Periodontal disease or more commonly known as Gum Disease is caused simply by the plaque that forms upon your teeth. Plaque is made mostly of bacteria, and some of these bacteria produce toxins or enzymes that can start to irritate and damage the tissues that support your teeth. These toxins and enzymes can damage the attachment of the gums, periodontal ligament, and bone to your teeth.
This can all be prevented by the removal of plaque through a good oral hygiene. You should clean your teeth twice a day while also using floss to clean in between your teeth. If you do not clean and floss regularly the plaque will build up along the gum line and increase the risk of developing periodontal disease.
Knowing the facts about gum disease is vital, if untreated and left to progress gum disease can become a very serious issue and can often lead to tooth loss. Healthy gums are meant to have a healthy pink color, they are meant to hug your teeth tightly and you should also have no signs of bleeding.
There are 4 main stages of periodontal disease that you should be aware of so that you can effectively search for where you may be suffering from gum disease. These are;
With Gingivitis you will start to see that your gums will bleed easily when brushed or probed gently. They will also be inflamed or sensitive to touch, and look a blush red color in between the teeth. You may also find yourself suffering from bad breath and bad taste.
- Early Periodontitis
During Early Periodontitis you will start to see your gums possible pulling away from your teeth, while also suffering from puffiness and more pronounced bleeding and inflammation. You will still experience bad breath, but can also suffer from a slight loss of bone, horizontally on X-ray, also possible pockets of 3-4 mm between teeth and gums, not just in one area of the mouth but multiple.
- Moderate Periodontitis
If you start to develop Moderate Periodontitis you will start to realise boils or abscesses developing on your gums. Your gums will start to recede leaving your teeth looking longer, and also your front teeth may start to drift, showing spaces between the teeth. The pockets will also start to increase to around 4-6mm deep.
- Advanced Periodontitis
Advanced Periodontitis is the final stage of gum disease, during this stage you will find you teeth becoming loose, and bad breath and taste becoming a constant problem. Your teeth will start to become more sensitive to hot and cold sensations and your roots may become exposed. The pockets will now be in excess of 6mm deep between teeth and gums. You may have also suffered from severe horizontal and angular bone loss, which can be picked up on X-ray.